The intestines of mammals give permission for nutrients to enter through to the rest of the body while halting most dangerous bacteria from entering. New study in mice now uncovers how this is feasible, advising implications for drug design and delivery.
Mammals, even humans, have two intestines – the small and the large – which is a portion of the digestive system. These intestines both create the lower gastrointestinal tract, and they function an important role in digestion and excretion.
In the lower gastrointestinal tract, a limited extent of digested food from the stomach is broken down more into its components, when then go into the bloodstream by means of the intestinal wall, so they can get to the different organs and parts of the body.
Alongside, nevertheless, the intestinal wall stops many harmful agents from entering through and contaminating the blood. But how does it occur? This is the question that the analysts from the Rockefeller University in New York, NY, have attempted to answer by performing an initial research in mice.
The research – the results of which are published in the journal Nature – disclose an important difference in the structure and organization of the intestinal immune system, which shows certain components of the intestines more possibly to mount an immune answer against pathogens (dangerous agents) than other components.
“At first look, the intestine seemed uniform completely,”. “But we’ve discovered a special functional system lottering underneath the surface, orderly in segments to give permission for different immune system purposes in various distinct locations” describes study author, Daniel Mucida.
New revelations and clinical suggestions
To enhance your knowing about how the intestines “screen” for dangerous bacteria and store them at bay, the researchers viewed the gut-draining lymph nodes in mice. These formations help organize an immune answer against pathogens, being careful that they do not go through the intestinal wall.
The researchers discovered two vital results: Initially, that different gut lymph nodes have different cell compositions, and next, these rely on where in the lower gastrointestinal tract they are located.
In an attempt to know about how distinct lymph nodes react to pathogens, the researchers initiated Salmonella enteric into the mice’s guts. When this occurred, they noticed that some lymph nodes had a higher chance to mount an immune reaction against the bacterium than others.
Particularly, it was the lymph nodes in the large intestine that responded against the Salmonella, making sure it did not contaminate the rest of the system. By difference, the lymph nodes in the small intestine carried out a major role in taking in nutrients and sending it into the bloodstream.
The researchers describe that this detachment makes awareness: Once the small intestine has taken in the nutrients, the lymph nodes in the large intestine can mark and remove any pathogens. Mucida and teammates also mention that being aware of which part of the intestines is able to mount the powerful immune reaction can help researchers think better therapeutic plans for gastrointestinal states.
Moreover, the present discoveries could make way to improve the success of oral vaccines, which till now, has been unsuccessful to come up with powerful enough immune reactions.
After examining and reviewing the results of the present research, its authors think strongly that oral vaccines might be of no use because their active ingredients interact with immune system components in the small intestine, which is difficult to mount a strong immune reaction.